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Old 03-30-2005, 08:54 AM
Durk Valkema
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Just spoke with my friend the chemist at the Leerdam plant.
In his memory Kugler colours where used in the Crystal production all the time. Kugler was asked to make a melt to fit but if it did not the clear was adjusted.

It was tested by production doing the ring test.
The lab used the "method Dr. Patmos". Dr. Patmos worked for Philips and developed a test where a standard clear was welded to the glass to test. After annealing the weld was cut and polished and viewed through a micro polariscope to measure the tension.
Necessary for the developments of all the different light systems Philips developed.
This is all pre 1950.
His remark on the COE, LEC and viscosity was very practical, to my friend its all very theoretical if you know the LEC you know the COE and for him viscosity has to do with machine speed. Than again he is all about container glass. Density of 2.5 at room temperature but only 2.25 at 1400 C (2552F)
Batch calculations with expansion is only practical empirical info, measure and you will know.
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